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Utamaro (1753 - 1806)

Courtesan Usumizu from Tsuruya

Medium: Woodblock Print
Date: c. 1789
Size (H x W): 15 x 10 (inches)
Publisher: Yamaguchiya
Seals: Kiwame
Signature: Utamaro hitsu
Conditon: Good color, very good impression, light overall wear, mica on collar.
Price on request


In this portrait, the courtesan Usumizu appears slightly undone. As she pulls the neck of her under kimono across her chest, fine wisps of hair can be found at the nape of her neck, her temple, and her left ear. Unlike the taut coiffures found in many okubi-e, Usumizu’s hair loosely rolls over her many hairpins in gentle waves. Utamaro pays such special care to her hair such that each strand seems tangible. She raises her eyebrows, her mouth slightly open, perhaps portrayed in a moment of surprise. The Yoshiwara captivated Utamaro throughout his career. In fact, his prints show such an intimate acquaintance with the women of the pleasure quarters that he was called a “sensualist” by late 19th century Western critics.

About the artist

Utamaro is one of the masters of Japanese woodblock printing. The scholar and artist Sekien served as Utamaro’s teacher until Seiken’s death in 1788. While the influence of Kiyonaga coursed through his early prints, Utamaro’s unique style soon asserted itself. A prolific artist, he also produced illustrated books and paintings. Around 1791, he directed his focus to half portraits of women on their own, rather than the full-length, group designs that dominated the genre of bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women). In 1804, he ran into legal trouble with the Tokugawa Shogunate for producing prints relating to a historical scene. The print depicted the 16th century ruler Hideyoshi with his wife and courtesans, entitled Hideyoshi and His Five Concubines. The work was deemed disrespectful and Utamaro was sentenced and imprisoned for a short time. Some believe that this broke his spirit, for he died in Edo two years later. Utamaro’s enormous popularity was not limited to Japan. He was one of the first ukiyo-e artists to be known in Europe and inspired many Western artists.


Utamaro is especially known for his portraits of women, renowned for his ability to subtlety capture their private lives. From courtesans to mothers, he offered a behind-the-scenes understanding of Edo’s women. Slender and graceful, Utamaro’s women bear small features and delicate color. He also produced many okubi-e (big-head portraits). During the 19th century, Utamaro entranced Western artists with his designs. Mary Cassat was particularly taken by Utamaro’s work, exclaiming, “you who want to make color prints, you couldn’t imagine anything more beautiful.” 1


1. Mathews, Nancy Mowll. Mary Cassatt: A Life. New York: Villard, 1994. Print, 194.