Often Utamaro’s women are nameless in print, but were readily recognizable beauties of their time. Often, these kanban musume or “poster beauties” create an atmosphere or capture a private moment. What is compelling about this particular work is the fluidity of the lines and simplicity of her form. As Utamaro’s okubi-e (big head) portraits revolutionized the bijin-ga genre, the line with which he formed these elegant beauties inspired artists and collectors internationally. Utamaro demonstrates his mastery of line in this image of a young woman. The portrait is simple in color pallet, but rich in visual texture. Utamaro delineates her delicately undone peach kimono through no more than a few elegant strokes. As the line oscillates in width, Utamaro conveys the thickness of the fabric and the subtle curvature of the kimono’s edge. The fine lines of her hair and nestled ornaments contrast the kimono.
Utamaro is one of the masters of Japanese woodblock printing. The scholar and artist Sekien served as Utamaro’s teacher until Seiken’s death in 1788. While the influence of Kiyonaga coursed through his early prints, Utamaro’s unique style soon asserted itself. A prolific artist, he also produced illustrated books and paintings. Around 1791, he directed his focus to half portraits of women on their own, rather than the full-length, group designs that dominated the genre of bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women). In 1804, he ran into legal trouble with the Tokugawa Shogunate for producing prints relating to a historical scene. The print depicted the 16th century ruler Hideyoshi with his wife and courtesans, entitled Hideyoshi and His Five Concubines. The work was deemed disrespectful and Utamaro was sentenced and imprisoned for a short time. Some believe that this broke his spirit, for he died in Edo two years later. Utamaro’s enormous popularity was not limited to Japan. He was one of the first ukiyo-e artists to be known in Europe and inspired many Western artists.
Utamaro is especially known for his portraits of women, renowned for his ability to subtlety capture their private lives. From courtesans to mothers, he offered a behind-the-scenes understanding of Edo’s women. Slender and graceful, Utamaro’s women bear small features and delicate color. He also produced many okubi-e (big-head portraits). During the 19th century, Utamaro entranced Western artists with his designs. Mary Cassat was particularly taken by Utamaro’s work, exclaiming, “you who want to make color prints, you couldn’t imagine anything more beautiful.” 1
1. Mathews, Nancy Mowll. Mary Cassatt: A Life. New York: Villard, 1994. Print, 194.